Internet Protocol Address

An IP address is a number given to a computer (a server or a personal computer) by the ISP. The most commonly used IP address is a 32-bit (4 byte) address. It looks like this in the decimal system: 172.16.0.1 . This number is converted from binary because it tends to be easier for humans to process decimal numbers. In binary the IP addresses looks something like this: 10101100.00010000.00000000.00000001 – the reason this is a 32-bit address is because in binary there are 32 characters, and it’s 4 bytes because there are 4 groups of 8. These bytes are also called octets.

So what exactly does this number mean?

The first octet defines the class of the network. The class determines how big the address space is for the network… in other words, how many computers can be addressed on the network. A class networks are the largest, and are usually reserved for governments. B class networks are second largest, and are used by ISP’s, corporations, school systems and the like. C class networks are the smallest

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A = 0-123 (last 3 octets available for host addressing and subnetting) B = 124- 191 (last 2 octets available for host addressing and subnetting) C = 192 – 223 (last 1 octet available for host addressing and subnetting) D/E = 224 -255 (experimental and testing networks).

For Example :

If your computer has an address of 158.59.224.135, the address is interpreted as follows: The computer belongs to a class B network, so the first two octets define the network. The last two octets define the specific host on the network, as well as any subnetting.

The first two octets are the IP address assigned by the ISP for all of the computers in that network. The administrator or the user assigns the last two octets to the computer. This means you. If you have a network of, lets say, three computers and your network IP address is 172.16.0.0 you can assign the first computers IP address to be 172.16.0.1 then the second computer’s IP address can be 172.16.0.2, and the third can be 172.16.0.3 . This allows you to keep your network a little more organized.

Important IP address : 127.0.0.1 {localhost}

127.0.0.1

Types of IP Adresses

Dynamic IP Addresses

Dynamic IP addresses are IP addresses that are not necessarily tied down to one machine. They are usually applied to personal computers and other devices that can be taken on an off a network without worrying about disrupting anything other than being suddenly disconnected while trying to send an e-mail. You will usually find a dynamic IP address on your personal computer.

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Static IP Addresses

You are more likely to find a static IP address on a server than on a personal machine. This is because if the IP address to a server changes it will disrupt the ability of users to access the site (or sites) hosted on that server.

Domain Name System

dns_diagram

The Domain Name System (DNS) associates various information with domain names. It serves as the phone book for the Internet by translating human-readable computer hostnames (ex: www.tech2hack.com) into IP addresses (ex: 123.456.789.01) which networking equipment needs to deliver information. DNS also stores other information such as the list of mail servers. DNS is an essential component of the Internet we use.

dns_example

DNS makes it possible to assign Internet names to organizations independent of the physical routing hierarchy represented by the numerical IP address. DNS distributes the responsibility for assigning domain names and mapping them to IP networks by allowing an authoritative name server for each domain to keep track of its own changes, avoiding the need for a central register to be continually consulted and updated.

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